Vitamin D is fat-soluble. In this article “Vitamin d3 deficiency- symptoms, causes, effects, and treatment” will see how Vitamin D is responsible for the absorption of magnesium, calcium, and phosphate in our body through the intestine. Though there are many other sources are also present for vitamin D. One of the important sources for vitamin D is sun exposure that’s why this vitamin is also called the sunshine vitamin.
Vitamin D is essential in our body as it has many functions which are required for the normal functioning of the body. One of the main functions of vitamin D is maintaining healthy bones and teeth.
There are five types of vitamin D is present namely D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 depend upon the change in their structure. In our body, D2 and D3 are present which is absorbed in the form of vitamin D.
Eat these Vitamin D reach food.
Vitamin D is present in almost all the food we eat.
These foods contain less amount of vitamin D in it.
- Milk products
- Soy beverages, fortified with vitamin D
- Skimmed milk / Powder
- Goat’s milk, fortified with Vitamin D
- Yogurt, fortified with vitamin D
- Meat and its alternatives
- Egg yolk, cooked
- Pork, various cuts, cooked
- Deli meat ( pork, beef, salami, and bologna)
- Beef liver, cooked
- Fish and seafood
- Salmon, sockeye/red, canned, cooked or raw
- Humpback/pink, canned, cooked or raw
Coho,raw or cooked
- Tuna, albacore, raw or cooked
- Mackerel, Atlantic, cooked
- Tuna, white, canned with water
- Cod liver oil
- Rice, oat, almond beverage, fortified with Vitamin D
Vitamin D Synthesis and Absorption in Body.
Synthesis of vitamin D depends upon how much exposure to sunlight and individual does. Next, it depends on the activation in the liver as well as in the kidney. In this article “Vitamin d3 deficiency- symptoms, causes, effects, and treatment” will see the three-step process happened in the body related to vitamin D3
Photochemistry of Vitamin D:-
In this process, 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted into vitamin D3. This occurs in two ways. Firstly, when exposure to the sunlight (UV) this 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted in vitamin D3 through electrocyclic reactions.
Secondly, this pre-vitamin D3 gets isomerizes into vitamin D3 in an organic solvent which takes almost 12 days to complete this process. It is to be noted that under UV radiations this conversion process is much faster, almost 10 times faster than organic solvent.
Synthesis of Vitamin D in the skin:-
7-dehydrocholesterol is produced in our body in a larger amount. It reacts with the UV radiations to form vitamin D3. But for the formation of vitamin D3 in the skin, it should be kept in mind that UV rays wavelength should be in between 270-300 nm, in which the peak synthesis of vitamin D take between 295 and 297 nm.
Insufficient sunlight through glass and window may prevent the formation. 5 to 30 minutes exposure to the sun for twice a week is much sufficient with moderate exposure to the face, arms, and legs.
Absorption of Vitamin D in the body:-
Vitamin D Required Amount in the Body
The amount required for Vitamin D is measured in two units- in micrograms (mcg) and International Units (IU). The required amount of vitamin D for the whole life updated by U.S Institute of medicine is as under:-
- Infants (0-12 months) – 400 IU (10 mcg).
- Children (1-18 years) – 600 IU (15 mcg).
- Adults (up to 70 years) – 600 IU (15 mcg).
- Old people (over 70 years) – 800 IU (20 mcg).
- Pregnant or lactating women – 600 IU (15 mcg)
Vitamin D Role in the Body
For healthy bones:- It plays an important role in the regulation of calcium and maintaining the phosphorus level in the blood. Calcium and phosphorus are required for stronger and healthy bones and prevents fracture.
The decrease in the level of vitamin D leads to bones related problems. Another function of vitamin D is in muscles contraction, it enhances the muscles contraction.
Increase immunity:– Vitamin D plays an important role in enhancing the immunity for flu and cold. In researches they had cleared that those patients who are less exposure to the sunlight, less formation of vitamin D takes place, immunity becomes low and becomes
As an anti-inflammatory:- Vitamin D plays the role of anti-inflammatory and keeps our lungs healthy free from diseases.
Reduces Hypertension (high blood pressure):- Vitamin D helps in reducing high blood pressure. It is said that those who have a lower level of vitamin D has greater chances of a heart attack.
Healthy kidney function:– It promotes healthy kidney function and prevents the disease.
It’s also beneficial in other body functions like, to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. To have a healthy pregnancy. To have healthy skin, it also helps in the prevention of cancer.
Vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms
The main symptoms seen for the deficiency of vitamin D is seen in the form of rickets in children and Osteomalacia in adults.
Osteomalacia describes a syndrome in adults of defective bone mineralization, bone pain, increased bone fragility, and fractures. Rickets is that the equivalent syndrome in youngsters and is characterized by enlargement of the expansion plate and bone deformity.
This mainly occurs due to poor diet and insufficient exposure to the sunlight.
Vitamin D deficiency in children causes delayed development which results in muscle hypotonia, craniotabes (small unossified areas in membranous bones of the skull that yield to finger pressure with a cracking feeling), bossing of the frontal and parietal bones and delayed anterior fontanelle closure, enlargement of epiphyses at the lower end of the radius, and swelling of the rib costochondral junctions (‘rickety rosary’).
Osteomalacia in adults presents insidiously. Mild Osteomalacia can be asymptomatic or present with fractures and mimic osteoporosis. More severe Osteomalacia presents with muscle and bone pain, general malaise and fragility fractures.
Proximal muscle weakness is prominent and the patient may walk with a waddling gait and struggle to climb stairs or get out of a chair. There may be bone and muscle tenderness on pressure and focal bone pain can occur due to fissure fractures of the ribs and pelvis.
Vitamin D formation is less in dark-skinned people than normal people. As melanin content which is responsible for the darkening of skin prevent the absorption of vitamin D and hinders with the synthesis of vitamin D.
Calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D has the property for reducing the cancer growth by slowing down the growth of cancerous cells, developing new blood vessels, reducing cell proliferation and metastasis.
For pregnant women’s who have a deficiency of vitamin D has a higher risk of developing preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and bacterial vaginosis.
For those children who have a low level of vitamin D have a
OTHER SYMPTOMS MAY INCLUDE:-
- Painful bone and back
- Delay in wound healing
- Depressed mood
- Hair loss
- Muscles pain
These symptoms found in the starting of the deficiency of vitamin D.
If it persists for a longer time, the symptoms may include:-
- Chronic fatigue syndrome
- Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease
Vitamin D deficiency may also produce the disease condition like- IBD (inflammatory bowel disease), Autoimmune diseases, Cancer, Autism, erectile dysfunction, sleep apnea.
Vitamin D Deficiency Treatment
For treating the deficiency, the first step is to maintain the optimum level of vitamin D which is required for the body, so as to avoid any medical and severe conditions produced. Dietary source for vitamin D is first advised to fulfill the requirement.
Next, Vitamin D3 supplements are given to the patient; Vitamin D2 does not raise the level which is required. These supplements can be taken once a week for eight weeks or can be taken daily depend upon the dose and the age factor.
It is advised to consult your doctor first for taking any supplements; otherwise, any serious medical condition can be produced.
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