Ten Emergency First Aid Treatments Hikers Must Know.

Today as our life has become so busy that we neglect the important things on backpacking trips which we all should know. One of the important things is the first aid treatment. In backpacking, hiking or trekking many hostile situations we would have to face from mosquito bite to hardtack.
Ten emergency first aid treatments backpackers and hikers must know will help you make the correct decision to save someone’s life.

What Is Emergency First Aid Treatments?

It includes all those serious interventions which can be done for saving life prior to doctors and medical help which are unavailable at that time.  Like applying plaster to a cut, performing CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation), a complete minor treatment till the ambulance comes. 

A critically ill patient is always at the risk of death. Recognition, assessment, and management of critical illness are fundamental to clinical care in any sphere of medicine.

Ten emergency first aid treatments hikers must know in Hostile Situations.

First Aid Treatment for the Nose Bleeding.

Ten Emergency First Aid Treatments Hikers Must Know.

Nose bleeding is now very common but if it persists then it can become life-threatening. The nasal mucosa has a very rich blood supply and undergoes constant variation in the state of engorgement of its blood vessels.

Vessels from both the internal and external carotid artery contribute, i.e. the ethmoidal arteries from the internal carotid and the greater palatine, superior labial and sphenopalatine arteries from the external carotid. These vessels form a rich plexus on the anterior part of the septum – Little’s area or ‘Keisselbachs plexus’.

What can cause bleeding from the nose:-

Local causes include:-

  • Spontaneous
  • Trauma
  • Tumors
  • Hereditary telangiectasia
  • Nasal allergy

General causes include:-

  • Cardiovascular conditions
  • Hypertension and raised venous pressure
  • Coagulation or vessel defects
  • Haemophilia
  • Leukemia
  • Anticoagulant therapy
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Fever (rare)
  • Influenza

First aid treatment:-

  • Apply direct digital pressure on the lower part of the nose and compresses the vessel on the septum. It will arrest bleeding from Little’s area. Pressure over the nasal bones at that time is useless.
  • Treating active epistaxis is a very difficult process. For this cover up your own clothes first. Now assess the patient and consider resuscitation. Examine the nose of the patient with a good light source. Gently remove clots and stale blood with suction. Now apply direct digital pressure to the nose for 10 min and the patient should sit leaning forward and breathing should be through the mouth. Discourage swallowing as it may dislodge a clot.
  • If bleeding still persists and the site of the bleeding is clearly visible, e.g. Little’s area, then you may be able to stop it by cautery with a silver nitrate impregnated stick. This is easier, for this you have to first put in a plug of cotton wool or ribbon gauze soaked in lidocaine and phenylephrine (Cophenalcaine TM) and leave it for 5 minutes. This also facilitates nasal packing but may not be practical if there is torrential bleeding.
  • If still, bleeding persists then call ENT doctor for an emergency.

Next situation is again very common in outdoor traveling. Will see what we can do in ten emergency first aid treatments hikers must know.

First Aid Treatment for Vomiting

Ten Emergency First Aid Treatments Hikers Must Know.

Vomiting is a complex reflex which involves both autonomic and somatic neural pathways. Synchronous contraction of the diaphragm, intercostal muscles, and abdominal muscles take place which raises intra-abdominal pressure.

Intra-abdominal pressure combined with the relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter which ultimately results in a forcible ejection of gastric contents.

Gastrointestinal causes for vomiting are:-

  • Infection
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Cholecystitis
  •  Pancreatitis,
  • Infectious hepatitis,
  • Appendicitis
  • Peptic ulcer.

Above are related to GIT. There are also causes of vomiting which include:-

  • Drugs,
  • Motion sickness,
  • Raised intracranial tension,
  • Meningitis,
  • Azotaemia,
  • Pregnancy,
  • Systemic illness
  • Psychogenic causes.

First aid treatment:-

For the person who is having vomiting, they are advised to drink small water at one time. ORS can be advised for those patients who are suffering from severe vomiting so that electrolyte balance must be maintained. A sports drink or clear liquids can be taken.

As our aim is to prevent the patient from dehydration.  Patient during vomiting should not intake any kind of solid food until the vomiting stop. Once the patient started feeling good then the patient can eat the food like banana, rice, applesauce, and toast. If still, the patient has vomiting than consult the doctor and start treatments including IV fluids and medications.

First Aid Treatment for Burns

Ten Emergency First Aid Treatments Hikers Must Know.

The burn is a type of skin injury which is caused due to exposure of skin to the excessive heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction or radiations.

Depending upon the intensity of the exposure, the burn is divided into four degrees. The most common burn is due to heat.

First aid treatment:-

Firstly removes all the fire content from the burnt person due to which the patient has burnt. Then removes the burned or hot clothes or you can just tear it.

Then take off the jewelry wearing as burn part become swollen which will be constructed.

Next, keep the burned part under cool running water or dipped it in cold water until the pain subsides.

Then protect the burned part with sterile cotton, non-adhesive bandage or with a cloth. To relieve the pain painkiller can be given. Still not get better contact to doctor in the burn unit.

First Aid Treatment for Head Injury

Ten Emergency First Aid Treatments Hikers Must Know.

Head injuries which are minor do not require special attention and treatment. But some minor injury when becomes chronic can be harmful and create permanent changes.

If the head injury is associated with the following symptoms, then it is a sign of danger, means it need attention and hospitalization. These symptoms are:-

  • Nausea
  • Unsteadiness with an inclination to fall down
  • Constant headache
  • Difficulty in concentration
  • The bluish and blackish color of eyes
  • Facial or head bleeding
  • Blurred speech
  • Bleeding from nose or ears

First aid treatment:-

After calling the ambulance, firstly keeps the patient lying down with a slight elevation of its head and shoulder. Make sure the patient should not move the neck constantly. If the person is wearing a helmet then don’t try to remove it.

If there is any bleeding than stop the bleeding by firmly apply the pressure to the wounded part with a clean cloth or sterile gauze. Remember don’t apply direct pressure on the injured part as there can be chances of fracture in the skull.

If patient breathing is absent than start with CPR.

First Aid Treatment for Fracture

Ten Emergency First Aid Treatments Hikers Must Know.

Fracture or a broken bone occurs due to any mechanical causes like fall, blow, an accident which produces cracks in the bone and sometimes breaks bones into two parts. Though they are not life-threatening but still require medical attention.

How to know that bone got fractured. Here are the symptoms:-

  • Very severe pain which gets worse while moving the fractured part.
  • Numbness
  • Swelling
  • Bluish color of the fractured area
  • Visibility of deformity
  • Protrusion of the bone through the skin
  • Bleeding may present

First aid treatment:-

  • Firstly stop the bleeding if present from the injured part. Elevate the part firmly apply the pressure with sterile gauze or clean cloth to stop the bleeding.
  • Next is to immobilize the part by providing support to the fractured part with the help of splint or sling.
  • Now apply the ice to the affected part through ice bag or pack for at least 10 min as it will stop further bleeding and reduce swelling and pain.
  • Now cover the affected part with the blanket and the patient in a comfortable position for the rest until the doctor reaches.

Please review this article”Ten emergency first aid treatments hikers must know”.

First Aid Treatment for Heart Attack

A heart attack is an acute emergency which requires medical attention immediately otherwise the patient can die within minutes.

Here the symptoms of a heart attack:-

  • Pain in the chest
  • Heaviness or constriction over the chest part
  • Discomfort and radiating pain from the heart to the left arm, shoulder, back, jaw, teeth and some time to the upper abdomen.
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Sweating
  • Fainting feeling and dizziness

First aid treatment:-

Firstly call the ambulance for the hospitalization to the nearest hospital. Till the ambulance come if you have aspirin than given to the patient if he is not allergic to it. Then try to do the CPR process.

If you still don’t know how to perform it than gently compress the chest turn by turn on the counting of 10 and try to make the patient conscious, if the patient is going unconscious than the prognosis can be worse.

First Aid Treatment for Snakebite

Few snake bites are not dangerous. But most of the snakes found in India are dangerous. They can be even life-threatening.

The affected part becomes bluish in color with redness, swelling and is painful.

First aid treatment:-

  • Try to keep the patient calm as the mental patient becomes so much restless after knowing of snake bite.
  • Then removes all the jewelry if wearing as the affected part will be swollen and it can get constricted.
  • Make the position of the patient, so that your heart must be over the snake bite part.
  • Clean the wound with the clean cloth but not with water and cover the part. Remember that don’t tourniquet or apply the ice, don’t cut the wounded part, and lastly don’t have drinks that have caffeine as caffeine increases the absorption of poison in the body.

First Aid Treatment of Dog Bite

The dog is a favorite animal of most of the people whether of yours or others, you can’t resist without touching and playing with the dog. But most of the dogs are so dangerous that if you go near to them they can even bite you. Ten emergency first aid treatments hikers must know.

For that condition, you need to go to the doctor for medication and injections to prevent the infection. When dogs bite you may feel shaken which requires medical attention if the dog is not vaccinated. The part becomes red, swollen, and warm and is very painful to touch.

First aid treatment:-

  • First, you have to see the severity of the bite; if the skin is not broken then you can normally wash with the warm water and use Dettol soap. After which apply an antibacterial ointment to prevent the infection and it will heal within a few days.
  • If the skin is broken, then wash the affected part with warm water and use Dettol soap, then gently press the affected part so that small amount of blood squeeze out as it will flush out the germs and bacteria present in the blood.
  • Now stop the bleeding by putting a clean cloth or sterilize gauze. After bleeding stops applies an anti-bacterial ointment and cover the wounded part with sterile gauze. Don’t forget to contact the doctor.

First Aid Treatment for Bee Sting

A bee sting is very common today. We all know what to do when bee sting occurs but few people are allergic to the bee sting. Normally after a bee sting, the affected part becomes red, hot, burning with itching and become swollen with shiny skin.

First aid treatment:-

  • Firstly remove the sting from the affected part by scraping with your fingernail. Now wash the area. Apply ice on it as it will reduce the swelling, burning, and itching. Normally it heals within 2-3 days.
  • But for the people who are allergic to bee sting they can have anaphylactic shock which is very dangerous and need medical attention quickly, otherwise, a reaction will increase which may cause the death of the patient if treatment is not provided.

First Aid Treatment for Mosquito Bite

A mosquito bite is also very common. The swelling and itching present after the bite of a mosquito which usually gets fades within a few hours. But in a few people, this swelling and itching may fade after 2-3 days.

Even some of the people are allergic to the mosquito bite because it produces histamine in the body which is responsible for producing redness, burning, and heat, swelling and itching on the affected part.

First aid treatment:-

To reduce swelling, apply ice or cold water on the bite as it decreases the release of histamine and reduces the pain and swelling. You can even wrap the ice bag around the part. Or you can also use a paste of baking soda and water; it also helps in relieving the itching and pain on the bite

What We Should Keep In Our First Aid Essential Kit?

 It is always important to keep first aid essential kit with us whether you are at home or you are planning to go somewhere else. Don’t know what can happen in our next step. So here are some essential things which you should keep in your first aid kit.

  • Sterile cotton
  • Sterile gauze for wrapping
  • Adhesive tape
  • Anesthetic spray
  • Anti-bacterial ointment
  • Adhesive bandage
  • Oral antihistaminic medicine to prevent any allergic reactions
  • Aloe Vera gel to reduce the pain and prevent a blister from a burn
  • Gloves to prevent infection and to make an emergency ice pack
  • Non-adhesive pads
  • Safety pins of large and small size
  • Scissors
  • Triangular bandage which can be towel, sling.
  • Tweezers for the tick removal and for splinters.

Please review this article”Ten emergency first aid treatments hikers must know”.

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